Everybody must be know about United Nations, the international organization which established in order to keeps the international peace and security. In June 26th 1945 at San Fransisco there was a conference with a purpose to made a new world organization to replace League of Nations, because The League of Nations failed to prevent the outbreak of the second world war (1939-1945).
To prevent the world war III, in 1945 United Nations was established to replace the League of Nations to keep the world peace and increase the international cooperate in economic, social, and international humanitarian. Franklin D. Roosevelt trusted to be the first person to made the name ‘United Nation’. For the first time this ‘United Nation’ name officially used in January 1st 1942 when 26 governments signed Atlantic Charter.
In October 24th 1945 United Nations was officially formed by the security council; France, China, Soviet Union, England, and United States. United Nation’s first assembly was held in January 1946 at Westminster Central Hall, London.
There were 51 representatives of state and the security council in the assembly. Since United Nations been established until 2007, there are 192 countries registered as member. The first central office of United Nation was in San Fransisco, but since 1946 until now, the central office is in Manhattan, New York.
Beside to keeps the world peace and also international security, there’s also another purpose of United Nations as it mentioned in Atlantic Charter, like increasing the international non-political cooperation maybe it can be about economy, social, and respect to the human rights like not discriminate based on gender, race, language, religion, or ethnic. United Nation acts in international environment through these agencies:
- General Assembly that consists of every representative of the member country.
- Security Council that consists of 15 member countries which is consist of 5 permanent members; France, China, Russia, England, and United States, and 10 other members for now are Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Columbia, Gabon, Japan, German, India, Libanon, Nigeria, Portugal, South Africa. This security council assigned to keep the world peace and security between countries.
- Economic and Social Council, consists of 18 member of United Nation which is voted by the General Assembly. In every year, they choose 6 members for 3 years. This council assigned to give hands for General Assembly to promote international economic, social, and development cooperation.
- Secretary, lead by the General Secretary assigned to organize the preparatory work and administration needed by the other agencies. For now, the General Secretary of United Nation is Ban Ki-moon from South Korea.
- International Court of Justice located in Den Haag, Holland is a main court of United Nation. The purpose is to adjudicate conflicts between countries.
Beside those six agencies, United Nations also has the special organizations or commissions in order to work in some issues, inter alia:
- FAO (Food and Agricultural Organization)
- IMF (International Monetary Fund)
- ILO (International Labour Organization)
- ITO (International Trade Organization)
- WHO (World Health Organization)
- UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization)
- ICAO (International Civil Aviation Organization)
- ITU (International Telecommunication Union)
- UPU (Universal Postal Union)
- IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency)